Although there are different methods for backing up MySQL and MariaDB databases, the most common and effective one is to use a native tool that both MySQL and MariaDB make available for this purpose: the mysqldump command. As its name suggests, this is a command-line executable program that allows you to perform a complete export (dump) of all the contents of a database or even all the databases in a running MySQL or MariaDB instance. Of course it also allows partial backups, i.e. only some specific tables, or even only only a subset of all the records in a table.
The mysqldump command offers a multitude of different parameters that make it very powerful and flexible. Since having so many options can be confusing, in this post I am going to collect several of the most frequent usage examples with the most common parameters and that are most useful in the day to day life of the system administrator.
DanielHow to perform MySQL/MariaDB backups: mysqldump command examples
The .xsession-errors file is where the X Window system logs all errors that occur within the Linux graphical environment. All desktop environments, whether Gnome, KDE, Cinnamon, XFCE, LXDE, etc., and all lighter window managers like FVWM, IceWM or Window Maker make use of the X Window system. Therefore any graphical application running on your computer can cause that error messages are written to the .xsession-errors file, reason why it can grow wildly until reaching very big sizes of tens of GB or even hundreds if your disk capacity allows it.
DanielHow to prevent the .xsession-errors file from growing to a huge size
It is usually easy to know which process or processes are writing to a given file in Linux, since we either know its origin and its nature beforehand (for example the Apache access_log), or we can easily find it out with the fuser or lsof commands. However, sometimes it will happen that although we know the role and purpose of a file, there are so many applications accesing it simultaneously that it is very difficult to know which of them is the one that reads/writes the most or does so in a precise moment. Knowing this would be very useful to learn for example why a log file is growing excessively or which application is making an abusive use of system resources, either by mistake or intentionally.
DanielFatrace command: how to know in real time which processes are writing to a file
One of the most common and tedious tasks of a sysadmin is to prevent file systems become completely full, because when a server runs out of space the consequences are unpredictable. Depending on how you structured the root file system and if it is divided into different partitions or volumes, those consequences will be more or less severe, but in any case undesirable.
Daniel15 most useful Linux commands for file system maintenance